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Relief Map of COLUMBIA COUNTY, Pennsylvania 
Surrounding areas are also included. Reproduced from Army Map Service 
Maps. Used with permission. Boundaries of Columbia County, other than 

STREAMS, HAVE BEEN EMPHASIZED BY ADDITIONAL INK LINES SUPERIMPOSED. 





North Mountain 



CONTENTS 

Geography of Columbia County 9 Summary of County's History 12 

Scenic Tours of Columbia County .... 14 



Agricultural and Home Economics 

Extension Office 19 

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation 19 

Ambulance 16 

Armed Services — regular enlistments in . . 15 

Authorities, The Pennsylvania 8 

Existing Authorities 9 

Bloomsburg Fair 18 

Board of Assistance 18 

Chambers of Commerce 17 

Child Welfare Services 18 

Cities, Classes of 2 

Civil Defense 17 

College, Bloomsburg State 5 

Columbia County Names 17 

Columbia Countians of Distinction 17 

Counties, Classes of 2 

Department of Forests and Waters 18 

Fire Protection 16 

Forests and Waters, Department of 18 

Geography of Columbia County 9 

Historical Society 2 

Highway Commission — Pennsylvania State 18 

Historical Society 1 

Hospitals, General 16 



Library Facilities 15 

Municipal Directories 17 

Pennsylvania State Highway Commission - . 18 

Policing 14 

Political Part 7 

Real Estate Assessments 17 

Red Cross 16 

Scenery, Enjoying Our County 14 

School Enrollments 5 

Sealer of Weights and Measures 14 

Sightseeing Tours 14 

Soil Conservation, Columbia County 

Unit for 19 

''Tax Anything" Law 8 

Townships, Classes of 2 

Trolley Cars 21 

Union School District 5 

United Funds 16 

Veterans' Affairs 21 

Voter Qualifications, Pennsylvania 7 

Weights and Measures, Sealer of 13 

Youth Services 15 

Further Reading and References 21 

Acknowledgments 21 

Picture Credits 21 



MAPS 

Relief Map, Columbia County Region 

Inside front cover 

Political Subdivision of Columbia County 

and Adjoining Districts , . 6 

GRAPHIC CHARTS 

Columbia County Government 2 

Borough Government in Pennsylvania 3 

Township Government 3 

Bloomsburg Town Government 4 

Local Administration of Government 4 

Columbia County Schools, Chart with 

Statistical Tables 5 

Population Growth,. Columbia- County . 10-11 

TABLES 

Columbia County Taxes 7 

Economy of Pennsylvania 8 

Population Growth, 1840-1960 10-11 

Land Use in Columbia County 9 

Population by Political Divisions, 1950 and 

1960 13 



Historical Society — Columbia County has an active his- 
torical society with museum and library in Bloomsburg. 
The Society holds meetings in all parts of the county. 
These deal with interesting topics of the recent as well as 
the more remote past. This, our current, effort, the Col- 
umbia County Guide, demonstrates the interest of the 



Society in the present-day welfare of the county. Knowl- 
edge and understanding of the struggles and efforts em- 
bodied in our region's history, recent as well as remote, 
are a necessary foundation for civic loyalty and devotion, 
as well as community building. 



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Arthur S. Clay Map, igio, Revised and 
published i960 by Columbia County His- 
torical 'Society. For additional copies 5 
address the Society 




fiescopeck Tvp 



KEY 

TO 

COLUMBIA C<? 

APJOINING COUNTIES 

TOWN5HIP5 

80ROUSH3 









-* ^ ^ 



r^ 



<S 



"&.S 



Ml 







Pennsylvania Voter Qualifications 

of age of Pennsylvania birth, ipso facto citizens of United 
States and Pennsylvania. Residence qualifications: If 
moving into the district — from another Pennsylvania 
district, 2 mos. ; from outside the State, 1 yr., except native 
born Pennsylvanians returning to the State, 6 mos. 

Local and municipal elections in Pennsylvania are 
scheduled for years without Presidential or Congressional 
elections, i.e., in the odd numbered years. 

Political Party — To qualify as a recognized Political 
Party in a county, one of its candidates in the next pre- 
ceding election must have polled at least 5% of the votes 
cast for any elected candidate. Only the Democratic and 
Republican parties qualify as such in Columbia County. 
Pennsylvania law recognizes a political party's political 
committee elected according to the rules of such party. 
The rules of both Democratic and Republican parties 
provide for the election at the spring primary election in 



Colombia County Court Room 

Persons 21 years even numbered years of one committee man and one 
committee woman from each district, to hold office for 
2 years, and to have charge of its party organization in the 
respective districts. A county committee includes all the 
district committee members plus the state committeeman, 
who has also been elected by party vote at the same pri- 
mary. The county committee in the case of each party 
holds its Biennial Meeting in even numbered years at 
which meeting officers are chosen (chairman, vice-chair- 
man) , and other matters cared for. 

Each party has an executive committee chosen accord- 
ing to its own rules. Each party must file its rules with 
the County Board of Elections. The rules then become a 
public document. 

At the close of registration, September 19, 1960, regis- 
tered voters included: 15,666 Democrats; 11,905 Repub- 
licans, 13 Prohibitionists, 256 non-partisan, and 8 inde- 
pendents. 



C L U M B 

Taxes Levied by Columbia 



A COUNTY TAXES 
County Taxing Bodies for the Yeap 




Benton 
Berwick 
Briar Creak 
Catawi ssa 
Centra I ia 
Mi I Ivi I le 
Orancevi I le 
Sti llwater 
B loomsburg 
( Town ) 

TOmSHIPS 

a m. CLAS S 

Beaver 

Benton 

Briar Creek 

Catawissa 

Centre, N 

Centre, S 

Cleveland 

Conyngham 

Fishing Cr. 

Frank lin 

Greenwood 

Hemlock 

Jackson 

Locust 

Madi son 

Main 

Mifflin 

Montour 

Mt. Pleasant 

Orange 

Pi ne 

Roaring Cr. 

S^ott 

Sugar loaf 



10.5 



1* 
l*.75 

2 

k.5 

3 

2.5 

2 

9 
2 
3.5 

2 

3.5 

6 

li 

3 

2-5 

3 

1-5 

2.5 

3.5 



3.3 
3.1 



21* 
20 
16 

10 

19 
19 
15 

50 
21 
15 

22 
23 

20 

13.5 

26 

27 

IB 

26 

21 

21 

27 

ll* 



36 

32.75 

26 

22 
30 
29.5 

25 

67 

31 

26.5 

32 

3U-5 

31* 

25.5 

37 

37.5 

29 

35.5 

31.5 

32.5 

36.8 

27 

31.5 

26.1 



1*1*1, BIO 
629,260 

1.736,670 
1*88,610 
^31*, 390 

1 ,253,1*90 
713,020 

675,ol*? 

80 1 ,970 

472,010 

1,1 15,1 10 

1,01*6,250 

301,320 
1,092,31*0 

807,780 
1*23,690 
1,185,580 
1,138,750 
1*93.830 
1*97.31*0 

376,310 

392,01*0 

3,319.1*20 

1*85,610 



15,505 



20.60E 29.98 



1*5,152 
lb.7i*9 

16,032 
33.97E 
17,825 

1*5, 22E 
21* 
I2,50f 
35,681 
36, 09^ 

10,21*5 
27 S5 C 
29,88. 
15,38' 
3l*,3e 
1*0,1*26 
15,55= 
I6.I7S 
13,81*' 
10,58' 
I0l*,56i 

12,671 



Total oh Summary, where applicabue 50,206,235 

Supplementary explanations and notes: 

This table is based on tax duplicates or advance esti 



23.19 



2 1. 91* 
18.76 
21*. 85 
30.20 
23.01* 
1*0.82 
26.93 
29.1*3 
28.52 
27.81 
21.60 
25.16 
31.39 
2B.81* 
20.96 
1*0.63 
23.72 
36.77 
51.27 
27.00 
32-1*5 
29.27 



31,090 
32,780 

eo,69o 

21*. 990 

27,920 

51*,260 
31*.1|20 
6 C ,070 
39. 1 15 
21,230 
59,390 

5l*,9IO 
18,080 
IjC',360 

36,eoo 

21* ,1*20 
6"y, 160 

1*1,760 

21*, 890 
18, I 10 
27,220 
20,51*0 
11*7,635 
27,550 

2,1*68,095 



21*e.72 
262.21* 
61*5.57 

199.92 
223.36 
1**1*. 08 
275.36 
520.56 
312.92 

169. 81* 
1*75.12 
1*39.28 

ll*i*.6l* 
39l*.88 
29l*.l*0 

195-36 
52 1. 28 
33l*-08 

199- 12 

lltL.38 
217.76 

161,. 37 

I, 181.08 

220.1*0 

19, 71*1*. 76 



9, 161*. 00 
ll*,887.00 
162,692.72 
18,256.50 
11*. 332.1*0 
363,*»b3.55 
1*5,050.00 

i+,<5 98.75 

37,752.36 

55,1*13.82 

73,318.68 

1*, 150.59 

%575.ll* 

110,101.91* 

23.2U0.nc 

17,259.00 

37,535.11* 

ll*, 10 1.96 

18, I81*.00 

25 1,300.00 

1*7,61*1*. 12 

932.1*19-86 

300.00 

S,l*20, 596.23 



36.71* 
59.51* 

650.77 

73.03 

57.33 

1,1*53.86 

172.20 
20.00 

151.01 

221.66 

293.28 
166.19 

22.30 

1*1*0.1*2 
92.96 

69. 0l* 

150.11* 

56.1*0 

72.71* 

1,007.20 

IO0.57 

3,729.67 

1.20 

25,831.17 



1*11 

1*32 

1.01*6 

325 
363 
690 
1.57 
87c 
515 
251* 
71*6 
729 
231* 
660 
1*79 
322 
857 
5l*8 
325 
233 
353 
233 
1,360 
355 

31,338 



5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
3.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 

5.00 
3.00 



00 
li.OO 



00 

2.00 



X 

10.00 

10. CO 

12.50 
io.qo 
7.50 
10.50 

12.50 
15.00 
10.00 



10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
12.00 

15.00 
15.00 

10.00 
I 1.00 
15.00 
10.00 
10.00 
|5.00 
12.50 

15.00 

10.00 

15.00 

10.00 
10.00 



8.1*1*5 

1,930 
2,663 

12, 190 

13,350 

6,738 

3,1*70 

1,650 

90,615 



6,165 

6,1*80 

15,690 

1*,225 
5,1*1*! 
6,900 
6,855 
8,70b 
7,725 

3,810 
1 1 , 190 
10,935 

3,510 

9,900 
7,185 
1*,330 
10,281* 
8,220 

l*,o63 
3,1*9 
5,295 
3,1*95 

27,900 

5,325 

1*08,873 



767,1*88.00 

I7.0B8.8I 



76,l*7l*.85* 1*2.20# 



39.059.70 

1*3.273.19 

13.683.60 

6,973.08 

581*, 772. 61* 



22, 355. 1*6 

27,1*09.78 
62,139.31* 
15,21*6.95 
21.757.69 
1*2,765.91* 
25,127.56 
511,1*68.56 
33,01.9.93 
16,709.50 
1*7,61*2.1*0 

1*7,636.1*7 
13,921.91* 
38,590.30 
37,1*60.36 
20,983.1*0 

1*5,336.1*2 
li9,036.1*8 

19,890.86 

20,326.08 

19,357.76 

ll*,l*3l*.9l* 

137,372.75 

13.220.60 
2,1*52,335.50 



53.M 
57.55' 

1*2.91* 



27.37 

1*5.36 

31.31 
36.13 
55.09 



32.58 
39.90 
33.12 
26.61 
33.73 

38.01 

32.1*6 
1*9.16 

35.81 

39.32 

38.08 

36.70 

38.67 
3l*.86 

39.35 

38.08 
27.61* 

1*9.53 

3D. 3? 
1*7.33 

29.71* 

36.82 

1*2.52 

1*2.08 
1*6.11, 



mates. Data were secured from offici 
Co I umn B7 



mates of i960 taxes. Actua I co I I ect i on 
sources and from a Pennsylvania Economy Leaque Report, 
"Tax duplicate" in this and other columns, by local usaae, means the tax rolls of taxes 
Column E|. "Taxables" means adult taxpayers. 

Columns headed, "Per capita tax", E 2 , E3. E^, is a special usage designating a tax of a set amount 
"Per capita" as used in Columns Bg and F 2 is according to the dictionary def 
pqualty on every man, woman, and child, to be distinguished from per capita taxes noted above. 

Column F , , *Thls Berwick total has been increased by a special occupation tax of $10. CO levied 
imately {56,891 collected from Borough taxpayers of this occupation ta: 
the total from $7 10,593.53 to $767,1188. 00. 
#This Catawissa total has been increased by a special wage tax in i960 of .QC5. As in the case of Berwick, the approximately $18,501 collected 
when added to the total of these other four taxes In this tabulation. Increases the total from 857,973.97 to $76,1,74. 85- 



according to experience closely anrrox imate advance esti- 
I96C. 

levi ed. 

on each i ndi vi dua I taxpayer , or "Taxab le." 
and means the burden of the given tax, or taxes, if distributed 

i960 on all income earning occupations. The approx- 
hen added to the total of these other four taxes in this tabulation, i rcreases 



Catawi ssa. 



THE ECONOMY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY 

CASH RECEIPTS FROM COLUMBIA COUNTY FARMS, I958 

Food Crops Frutts Horticultural Forest Dairy Other Poultry Total Government Total Cash 

& Specialties Products Products Livestock & Poultry all Payments Receipts 

Vegetables Products Products Commodi t ies 

$1,913,000 $195,000 $957,000 



$1+0,000 $2,888,000 $1,1+13,000 $3,675.ooo $11,081,000 $312,000 $11,393,000 



There were an estimated 1 ,600 farm families. Using these figures yields an average of $6,925 per farm family 
without government payments, $7,120 per farm family with government payments, gross figures in each case. (De- 
rived from Pennsylvania Crop Reporting Service, Annual Summary, I959.) 

TIMBER 

ESTIMATED ANNUAL GROWTH ON COMMERCIAL FOREST LAND. (In thousands of board feet, except as Indicated.) 



Annual Value Surplus Growth 
Hardwoods Softwoods Totals Annual Estimated at over Cut 

Cut $15.00 M or Deficit 



Net Surplus 



Saw Timber 1 ,660 1 ,6.12 3.272 12,825 $192,375 -9.553 
Pole Timber 37.956 3,768 1+1,721+ 5.26b 78,900 36,W>1+ 26,91 I 
The annual cut of Saw Timber, 12,825 M, plus Pole Timber, 5,260 M, gives 18,080 M, which conserva- 
tively estimated at $15 per M gives an estimated $271,200 In value. (Derived from Pennsylvania 
Statistical Abstract, I960, pp. 1+0-1+1.) 

MINERAL INDUSTRIES 

Plants producing coal, sand, gravel, clays, and peat, had a value of production estimated at 
$6,186,000 in 1956, latest date for which figures available. (Derived from Mineral Statistics of 
Pennsylvania, Department of Internal Affairs, April, 1959. P» 5-) 



MANUFACTURING PLANTS IN COLUMBIA COUNTY 



No. of Capital Employes 

Plants Expenditures 
during 1959 



Wages k 
Sa laries 



Value of Value added 

Production and by 

Related Activities Manufacture 



Food and kindred products 
Textl le mi I I products 
Apparel and related products 
Lumber and wood products 
Printing and publishing 
Stone, clay, & glass products 
Fabricated metal products 
Machinery, except electrical 
All other industries 



2ET 

IU 

17 



8 
7 
1+ 
13 



I 753.800 

909,600 

173,700 

93,100 

3 1 ,600 

6,1+00 

106,500 

8,900 

1,636,800 



l .1+37 

3,227 

1,8)42 

156 

109 

66 

231 

1+1 

3,550 



'♦ 5,977,000 

12,302,300 

1+, 826, 300 

1+12,100 

1+36,700 

236,200 

1,098,600 

15I+.I1OO 

18,287,200 



$ 27,905,300 

1+9,713,500 

12,676,700 

1,359,800 

881,800 

706,900 

3,653,900 

583,000 

89.501+, 300 



T 



I2,1j75,600 

21,1+86,800 

6,838,1+00 

665,700 

603,ij00 

1+62,100 

1,519,600 

21+9.500 

36,032,200 



Total manufacturing Industries 107 $3,720,1+00 10,659 $1+3,730,800 $186,985,200 $ 80,333,300 

The following are leading plants in their respective communities and areas: Bentoni Benton Industries 
(shirts). Otto G. Little & Co. (lumber products); Berwick: *American Car & Foundry Division of ACF Indus- 
tries (transportation equipment), Clewell's Container Corp., Consolidated Cigar, Vaughn's Bakery, *Wise 
Potato Chip Co.; Bloomsburg : Bloomsburg Mills Inc. (weaving), *J. L. Dillon Inc. (Florists, growers and 
wholesalers), *Magee Carpet Co., Mi Ico Undergarment Co.; U. S. Radium; Catawi ss» : MaxI Mfg. Co. (high 
pressure forged steel pipe unions and check valves). Regal Shirt Co.; Mi I Ivi I le : *Girton Mfg. Co. (dairy 
equipment and supp I iesi Ml I Ivi I le Lumber Products, MI I Ivi I le Plani ng; Orangevi I le i Orangevi lie Manu- 
facturing Co. (floor and warehouse trucks). Making use of the county's basic mineral resources: The 

Alliance Clay Products, Mi f f I i nvi I le, uses the rock formation of Bloomsburg red shale for brick and tile. 
Several companies. Including Bloomsburg Sand k Gravel Co., use deposits of glacial sand and gravel. The 
Baker Lime Quarry of Lime Ridge utilizes limestone formations. Coal deposits in the southern districts 
are still producing, largely by open pit mining. 
* Among the leaders in the nation in their industrial group. 

BLOOMSBURG STATE COLLEGE AS AN ASSET IN THE ECONOMY 

i960 Data: Pay rolls, Instructional staff of 106 received $668,000; the non-instructional employes, 
including persons serving with the contract caterer, ll+O, received $1+13,000; total 21+6 employes received 
$1,086,000. Capital expenditures attributed to year i960, estimated at $828,800. 



The "Tax Anything Law," is the popular designation of 
Act 481 of the 1947 General Assembly. By this law the 
General Assembly delegated its general taxing powers to 
local districts, although with important exceptions to be 
noted. By this legislation counties, townships, boroughs, 
towns, school districts, excluding certain classes of districts 
not existing in Columbia County, may levy taxes on any 
class of objects, instrumentalities, services, persons, not 
preempted by the Commonwealth. Excluded, however, 



from such delegations are receipts of public utilities, prod- 
ucts of manufacturing, lumbering, farming, and mining. 

Authorities — Institutions called Authorities have been 
authorized by the General Assembly of Pennsylvania to 
make possible forms of capital construction when the bor- 
rowing capacity of a political subdivision is at or close to 
the legal limit of its borrowing capacity. Municipal au- 
thorities are created by counties, boroughs, towns and 



8 




Pictured above are the contour strips on the Frank Kisner farm, 
Mt. Pleasant Township, Bloomsburg R.D., taken in the spring of 7 957. 
This picture was imprinted on envelopes to accompany the soil and 



water conservation postage stamp in 7 960 and sold from Post Offices 
ail over the United Sfafes. 



LAND USE IN COLUMBIA COUNTY 

iSS 60 Area: 4S4 so. mis.: 309.600 acres 1975 

Survey Forecast 

-100* 100*- 



Best Types Crop Land 



112,200 a. 
?6-4 c i 



7,qoo a. 2.3 ° 



02. Soo a. 
29. S* 



&)ASSLANOS 



8,200 a. 2 



.7* 



235,300 a. 
45* 



Woodlands 



151,300 a. 
49* 




17,400 a. 5.6 J 
+2,70O a. .gi 

30,500a. 
g.Si 


Urban Areas 23.000 «. 7-5 * ) 
AaterAreas 3,ooo a. i.»-J 

Other Uses 31.400 « 1 
Rds, Idle Etc. 20 % !' 



s 



COLUMBIA COUNTY'S LAND POTENTIAL 

lii?,OCO acres in Columbia County are potentially of the 
best quality crop land, level or gently sloping land of 
high productivity. Only about three fourths are so uti- 
I i zed. 

About 51,000 are potentially grass land, although only 
about one-fourth is used for this purpose. 

About Li9,000 acres are best suited for trees and grass. 

Ll.3>000 acres are potential woodland. 

About 300 acres are too stony for any use except wi Id 
1 e * Land use data by courtesy Col. Co. Soil ConservationOffice. 



school districts. Such authorities issue bonds, condemn land 
and construct specified improvements: sewage and dis- 
posal plants, park planning areas, bridges, schools or school 
facilities, and others. Administration may be directly by 
the authority or it may lease back the facility to the creat- 
ing governmental subdivision or school district in return 
for a rental sufficient to cover expenses and debt service. 
If administered directly by that Authority, financing is 
on a fee for service basis. 

The Pennsylvania Authority is a unique institution. The 
Authorities can generally borrow money only on interest 
rates about one-half to one per cent higher than districts 
creating them can borrow. There is also a State Public 
School Building Authority which the local school district 
may choose as the construction agency for a given school 
facility, in which case this state authority issues the bonds 



and constructs the facility following which lease-back and 
debt service provisions are similar to those of the Muni- 
cipal Authority. 

Existing Authorities and Purposes — Berwick Muni- 
cipal providing for the Parking and for sewage disposal; 
Bloomsburg, Park, Municipal (for sewage and trash dis- 
posal) parking; Catawissa Municipal, (water and sew- 
er) ; Millville, municipal water. 

School Authorities : State Public School Authority 
helped local districts to build: Millville high school and 
elementary school in Pine Township; Hemlock- Montour 
Jointure to build the William W. Evans Memorial school ; 
Roaring Creek Valley Jointure to build the Numidia ele- 
mentary school. The existing authorities are: Benton 
Area Joint School Authority, the Bloomsburg School 
Authority, the Central Area Columbia County Joint 
School Authority, the Fishing Creek Valley (Benton 
area) Joint School Authority, the Southern Area Colum- 
bia County School Authority. 

The Geography of Columbia County — Columbia Coun- 
ty, north and south, extends from the rugged escarpments 
of North Mountain to a group of parallel mountain ridges 
at the extreme south, Little Mountain, Big Mountain, 
and Locust Mountain. 

Twelve miles south of North Mountain, jutting up 
from the surrounding low lands, is Knob Mountain. This 
is really the abrupt termination of a great "V" shaped 
mountain extending eastward, the southern arm making 
Lee Mountain, the northern arm, Huntington Mountain. 
Another ten miles southeasterly brings knob-like Cata- 
wissa Mountain, also in form resembling a "V." Its north- 
ern arm, after the interruption of the Mainville Gap, 
becomes Nescopeck Mountain. The southern arm, after 
a broad half circle, becomes Little Mountain and extends 
far west beyond the limits of the county. In the open end 
between the Nescopeck Mountain and Catawissa Moun- 
tain are to be found a hogback mountain, McCauley, and 
farther south of it, Buck Mountain. The general trend of 
these mountains, with exceptions as noted, is slightly north 
of east to south of west. 

Just west of Berwick, a moderate hill emerges from the 
general level, and becomes higher as it extends west, be- 
coming a full scale mountain west of our county. "Turkey 
Hill," north of Bloomsburg, is actually part of this general 
formation called Montour ridge. 

(GEOGRAPHY Continued on page 12) 



I 8 U - i960 



COLUMBIA COUNTY POF 



1840 1850 I860 1870 1880 

1 1 1 _ 1 1 

Starting before 1810 roads and bridges for horse drawn traffic 



1890 
i 



IS 



River transportation before 1800, dec I i ni ng af ter coning of canals and railroads 



-50,000 — 



-40000 — 



o 
o 
o 



—30,000— 



24,243. 



> -20,000 — 



17,955 



o 

l- 
< 



-10,000 — 



Canals from 1852 ti I I 1900 



1 85^4. Rai Iroads come to Columbia County 



Farm machinery becomes widespread develop! r 



Predominately local industries producing for local markets 



Local iron mines support foundries and furnaces 



Academies, esp. Blcomsburg Lit,, Institute which grows into Normal Schc<p 



-0- 




o 
00 



o 
m 
00 



o 
92 



00 



o 

00 
CO 



o 

CT> 
CO 



c 
c 

c 






LATION GROWTH 



I S h - i960 



1910 
I 



1920 



1930 

1 



940 

1 



1950 
1 



I960 
1 



State Highway Commission brings improved roads for motor traffic 



m horse drawn to steam then motor powered, also grows in variety 



Industries with wide regional, national, and international markets develop 
hen to Teachers College then to State Colleqe 



I ine after |OLO 



53,460 



53,150 



48,457 



48,349 



51,414 




48,803 



-50.000 























/ "3 
/■ ■ ■ CO • 


CO • 


(0 




- 














>*>, Berwick 



40.000 



£ River Districts 



30,000 



o" Bloomsburg 



20,000 

Lower Fishing Creek 

I Upper Fishing Creek 
Little Fishing Creek 

10,000 
Catawissa 
§J2. Catawissa Valley 

CO 

en Roaring Creek Valley 
'. Cntrlia- Cnynghm. 



o 
en 



l 
o 

CM 

CD 



O 

ro 
en 



O 

co 



o 
en 



o 

CD 
CO 




Old House, Hemlock Township 

(GEOGRAPHY Continued from page 9) 

Viewed from the side, these mountains for the most 
part have a long level profile of a fairly uniform height. 
North Mountain at places reaches 2,300 or 2,400 feet 
above sea level; the others mentioned up to 1,700 or 1,800 
feet. However, the mountains reach only about 1,000 to 
1,500 feet above the valley floor. 

A lower group of elevations spread widely between 
these mountain ridges. They reach heights of possibly 800 
to a thousand feet, but only four to six hundred feet above 
the valley floors. Their summits for the most part form 
fine rolling hilltop farms, except where streams have 
carved deep valleys with steep, sometimes precipitous 
sides. The stream bottom lands provide farms as rich as 
might be desired. 

(GEOGRAPHY Continued on page 14) 
History — The powerful Susquehannock Indians, who at 
one time controlled the entire Susquehanna Valley, had, 
by the time of William Penn, succumbed to attacks of 
many enemies, white and red, as well as the white man's 
diseases. Their Iroquois conquerors, the Five Nations of 
the Mohawk Valley, allowed several wandering tribes to 
occupy our region. In 1768 by the Treaty of Stanwix the 
Iroquois sold a vast area embracing our area of Pennsyl- 
vania to the heirs of William Penn. This sale was against 
the wishes of the occupying groups, chiefly the Delawares, 
and partly explains Indian hostilities to come later. 

A few settler without legal authorization, "squatters," 
along with fur traders, had already come into our region. 
After this treaty, settlers migrated in considerable num- 
bers. Settlers from Connecticut claiming the Wyoming 
Valley region and others from eastern Pennsylvania clash- 
ed in armed conflicts with bloodshed. The conflict was 
finally settled by Decree of Trenton, 1781. The Revolu- 
tion also brought Tory-Patriot conflicts to our region ac- 
companied with frontier forays, battles, captures, death, 
and destruction at the time of the attacks on Wyoming 
Valley to the north. With the end of the Revolution, 1783, 
migration surged into our region fostered by a fever of 
land speculation. 

Soon the isolated settlers' cabins received neighbors, 
farms were cleared and pioneering changed to a more 
settled agriculture. In 1772 Northumberland County was 
set up including a vast area north and west from Sunbury. 
County after county was cut off; Columbia in 1813, with 
a name reminiscent of the then popular patriotic song, 
"Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean." Dissatisfied with the 



location of the county seat near the western border in 
Danville, 30 years of agitation led to its removal to Blooms- 
burg in 1848. This in turn led to further dissatisfaction 
until the county of Montour with Danville as the county 
seat was set up in 1850. 

Further history of the county is related to the chart on 
the preceding two pages. The grouping of districts on this 
chart: Berwick: Berwick Boro. : River Districts: Briar Creek 
Boro., Briar Creek, Mifflin, No. Centre, So. Centre. Scott 
Twps.; Bloomsburg: Bloomsburg Town; Lower Fishing 
Creek: Hemlock, Montour, Mt. Pleasant Twps.; Upper 
Fishing Creek: Benton, Orangeville, Stillwater Boros.. Ben- 
ton, Fishing Creek, Jackson, Orange, Sugarloaf Twps. ; 
Little Fishing Creek: Millville Boro., Greenwood, Madison. 
Pine Twps.; Catawissa: Catawissa Boro. (Earlier part of 
Catawissa Valley) ; Catawissa Valley: Beaver, Catawissa, 
Main Twps.; Roaring Greek Valley: Cleveland. Franklin. 
Locust, Roaring Creek Twps. ; Centralia-Conyngham : Cen- 
tralia Boro., Conyngham Twp. 

Like all frontier or pioneer communities, the pressing 
need was transportation to find an outlet for the surplus 
production, timber and timber products, farm crops and 
livestock, and the wealth still to be derived from the wild- 
life of stream and forest. Land transportation first by pack 
horse, then with the coming of turnpikes and bridges, by 
horse drawn vehicles was in each case slow and costly. At 
stream and river freshet times canoes, then durham boats, 
clumsv arks and clumsier rafts, took cargoes, including the 
valuable timber of which they were constructed, all com- 
bined worth thousands of dollars, to downriver markets, 
but at bitter costs in losses of life, cargoes, and boats, from 
river hazards. Improvements were demanded. The North 
Branch canal started to function for our region in 1832. 
and gave our region access far up the branches into New 
York and to the Atlantic Ocean ports, excepting during 
the winter months. The railroads reached us in 1854, and 
after 20 or 30 years their competition challenged the can- 
als, which finally succumbed in 1900. And now the rail- 
roads in turn are fighting for their lives in competition 
with the newer automotive and air forms of transporta- 
tion. Transportation improvements made it possible for 
our region to exploit its endowments of natural resources. 
In addition, local industries producing largely for local 
markets were able to find outlets for their surpluses in 
the metropolitan regions. Records are meager, but large 
amounts of timber must have been boated and rafted 
down the river. 

In 1822 iron ore was discovered in the hills north and 
west of Bloomsburg. Smelting furnaces sprang up, first 
using charcoal derived from forests and then later anthra- 
cite coal. Bloomsburg became a great iron town. Two 
furnaces and associated industries producing pig iron and 
fabricated iron products made Bloomsburg a bustling 
manufacturing town with railroad and canal taking out 
its products. By 1890 the more accessible ores had been 
exhausted and the remnants could not support an industry 
in competition with the richer resources from the Lake 
Superior region. 

In the late decades of the nineteenth century, William- 
sport became the lumber capitol of the world. The opera- 
tions of its Central Pennsylvania Lumber Company ex- 
tended to embrace the untouched forests of the North 
Mountain region, north Columbia County extending into 
Sullivan. For a brief time until the forests were exhausted 
(HISTORY Continued next page, column 2) 



12 



Local Government Units of Columbia County 
With Recent Population Figures 

1960 Data from Preliminary Releases of United States Census, 
Summer of 1960 

Columbia County has nine municipalities. Ranked ac- 
cording to population, they are: 



1950 


1960 


Gain + 


Population 


Population 


Loss — 


14,010 


13,336 


- 674 


10.633 


10,614 


- 19 


2,000 


1,812 


- 188 


1,986 


1,427 


-559 


890 


975 


+ 85 


878 


954 


+ 76 


348 


398 


4- 50 


424 


437 


+ 13 


189 


193 


4- 4 



Municipality 

1. Berwick Borough . 

2. Bloomsburg. Town 

3. Catawissa Borough 

4. Centralia Borough 

5. Benton Borough . . 

6. Millville Borough . . 

7. Briar Creek Borough 

8. Orangeville Borough 

9. Stillwater Borough . 



The County has twenty-four second class townships. 
Ranked according to population they are: 



1950 
Township Population 

1. Scott 2,258 

2. Briar Creek 1,546 

3. Mifflin 1,478 

4. Hemlock 1,093 

5. Greenwood 1,306 

6. South Centre 842 

7. Conyngham 2,009 



8. Locust 

9. Montour 

10. Madison 

1 1. Fishing Creek . 

12. Cleveland 

13. Benton 

14. Beaver 

15. Mount Pleasant 

16. Pine 

17. North Centre . . 

18. Catawissa 

19. Main 

20. Orange 

21. Sugar loaf 

22. Franklin 

23. Roaring Creek . 

24. Jackson 



1,182 
801 
942 
904 
826 
747 
776 
649 
674 
678 
502 
552 
387 
625 
456 
445 
424 



1960 

Population 

3,231 

1.876 

1.640 

1,298 

1,251 

1,125 

1,108 

1,107 

990 

952 

923 

774 

687 

686 

656 

651 

645 

573 

551 

440 

433 

425 

392 

360 



Gain + 
Loss — 
+ 973 
+ 330 
+ 162 
+ 205 

- 55 
4-283 

- 901 

- 75 
4- 189 



10 
19 
52 
60 
90 

7 
23 
33 
71 

1 
53 
192 
31 
53 
64 



COUNTY TOTAL 53,460 

1950 

Municipality Population 

Montour County (with Col- 
umbia County) forming 
Twenty-Sixth Judicial Dis- 
trict 16,001 

Salem Township,* Luzerne 
County (Partly in Berwick 
School Jointure) 2,859 

Nescopeck Borough,* Luz- 
erne County 1,907 

Nescopeck Township,* Luz- 
erne County 694 

Ralpho Township, North- 
umberland County, part of 
Southern Area Columbia 
County, School Jointure . . 2,051 

* Luzerne County Units closely associated with 
muting area. 



53,150 

1960 

Population 



16,700 



3,281 



1,924 



639 



2,228 



- 310 

Gain + 
Loss — 



4-699 



4-422 



+ 17 



- 55 



4- 177 




Looking up Coles Creek Valley to North Mountain. 



(HISTORY Continued from preceding page) 

in 1910, the now somnolent community of Jamison City 
lived up to its pretentious name of city, with concentrated 
lumber and tan bark industries. Our southern townships, 
Beaver and Conyngham, but chiefly Conyngham, exploit- 
ed resources in anthracite coal in the late nineteenth cen- 
tury. Those at Beaver are worked but little, if at all. The 
Conyngham-Centralia coal measures still are yielding, but 
on a reduced scale and largely by open pit mining. 

Since the turn of the century with the reduction or 
exhaustion of most of our primary resources, the economic 
base of the county has come largely to rest on the skill and 
enterprise of industrial leaders who have brought indus- 
tries to our county, diversified to a degree, but not suffic- 
iently so. Consult the table on page 8. The efforts of 
leaders finally placed in our midst an important institu- 
tion of higher learning in its dollars and cents impact on 
our region as well as in its educational influence, the 
Bloomsburg State College. 

Civil War days were not only a time of prosperity. 
Critics, sometimes bitter in their denunciations, were op- 
posed to the Lincoln administration. Alleged threats of 
resistance resulted in the occupation of the county by 
soldiers. Violent or outrageous incidents took place to the 
shame of both factions. 

The disturbances in the anthracite regions under the 
name of Molly McGuire's in the late 1860's resulted in 
violence in the southern end of our county with murder 
trials, convictions, and executions by hanging. 

Now in the mid-century decades, economic growth has 
been slowed down. Leaders are working to overcome this 
situation and are encouraged by the promise of the Key- 
stone Shortway, part of US Interstate Rout 80, which 
is to pass directly through the center of the county and 
should overcome permanently our transportation diffi- 
culties. 



Berwick's trading and com- 



A study of the Population Chart, pages 10 and 11, 
shows remarkably small changes in population numbers 
from 1860 to the present. The tendency of the districts 
near our larger centers of population, see Table page 1 2, 
to increase at the expense of the built-up sections, is es- 
pecially evident in the river districts and Salem Township, 
Luzerne County, adjacent to Berwick, and also in the 
townships adjacent to Bloomsburg. Scott Township's gain 
is especially marked. 



13 



Approaching Berwick 



Policing — Pennsylvania takes great pride in its State 
Police, one of the first such bodies created, and still one of 
the best. The Bloomsburg Barracks has Columbia County 
as its complete district. It is staffed by one sergeant, one 
corporal and eight troopers. In districts without organized 
police, the State Police provide policing: enforcement of 
traffic and criminal law and the maintenance of peace. 
Bloomsburg, all the boroughs excepting Briar Creek and 
Stillwater, and also the townships of Conyngham and 
Montour, have organized police forces. In such districts 
the State Police give assistance on request of the head of 
the local department. The different forces cooperate close- 
ly with each other. The constables have powers of arrest 
and serve papers of the justices of the peace. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures — Columbia County's 
Sealer of Weights and Measures in 1960 examined for 
accuracy 2,425 scales and measures in the county, of 
which 42 were adjusted and 30 condemned. 23.829 pack- 
aged commodities were checked, of which 2,200 were 
condemned. Recently, prosecutions for fraudulent viola- 
tions have been rare. 

(GEOGRAPHY Continued from page 12) 
The generally east-west trend of mountains and valleys 
have been able to control the stream flow only in part. 
The Susquehanna river, North Branch, after cutting 
through mountains south from Shickshinnv to our east, 
flows westward in a channel on softer rock formations for 
about twenty miles. Then it abruptly deserts the easy 
channel down Dutch Valley in order, it would seem, to 
cut through the rocky formations at the south thus form- 
ing the Catawissa Narrows. Then in a few miles it cuts 
back again through the same difficult formations to reach 
the previously deserted valley at Danville. 

Fishing Creek, larger than many streams called rivers, 
along with its many tributaries, takes its rise in the extens- 
ive North Mountain region. From this area, these streams 
flow south, cutting "across the grain" of hard and soft 
layers. The results are that at some places there are broad, 
gentle valleys, at others the harder rocks make narrow 
valleys, almost canyons. One interesting exception to the 
southward trend is the steplike pattern of Fishing Creek. 
Its south-bound current absorbs Huntington Creek from 
the east at Forks and then flows west until, past Knob 
Mountain, it can again turn south. Twice again the stream 
is deflected to the west when it strikes Turkey Hill below 
Lightstreet, and then at the Red Shale cliff's at Blooms- 
burg, until it merges with the River at the '"Point," be- 
tween Bloomsburg and Rupert. 

Briar Creek, the only other considerable stream on the 
"North Side" of the county, similarly cuts through ob- 
structing rock formations to join the river at the com- 
munitv of the same name. 



Catawissa Creek, rising east of Aristes, in the far south, 
follows a course on the outside of the horse-shoe curve of 
Catawissa-Little Mountain. In doing so, it seems also to 
prefer the "hard way," cutting its valley through numer- 
ous rock formations finally to find its outlet in the river 
at Catawissa. 

The Roaring Creek branches, north and south, spend 
their upper courses differently. The northern branch 
drains the rich farming land of Roaring Creek Valley, al- 
though some of its sources lie in the horseshoe mountain 
rim at the east. The southern branch rising in the deep 
and wooded Brush Valley, after yielding of its water to the 
impounding dams of the Shamokin Water Company, 
cuts brusauely through Little Mountain at Bear Gap. 
flows north, across the "grain" like its northern county 
counterparts, picks up the northern branch, and then the 
combined streams cuts through bordering hills in rapids 
and waterfalls to join the river at what used to be called 
Roaring Creek Station. 

This combination of streams and meadows, ridges, cliffs, 
gaps, and knobs, gives the Columbia County scenery a 
wide variety that will take many hours of delightful tour- 
ing to enjoy to the full. Much of the County's history, 
mineral, agricultural, and timber resources are to be 
understood from these basic geographic facts. Its trans- 
portation problems and advantages also become under- 
standable. 

Enjoying Our County and Its Scenery — In Columbia 
County are to be found these routes: Federal US 11: 
State roads, designated Legislative routes numbered in 
the 19,000's; County; and Township roads. 

The scenery of Columbia County provides a wealth of 
beautiful broad vistas, distant landscapes, and rugged 
mountain terrain. View the broad expanse of the North 
Branch of the Susquehanna as it enters the county at 
Berwick with a backdrop of Council Cup (Kanzel Kopf 
or pulpit head). At Bloomsburg the broad flood plain 
formed by the river and Fishing Creek are rimmed with 
the sharp bluffs of River Hill. The river makes its way 
through a sharp gorge, the Catawissa Narrows, affording 
a view of distant Catawissa Mountain. At the south is 
somber Brush Valley; at the north the impressive mass 
of North Mountain. 

We here outline for you nine circle tours. None is 
mentioned that does not have many picturesque views, if 
not grand and arresting vistas. If road turnings are missed, 
there will still be alternative and rewarding prospects. In 
each tour, any point other than the one suggested may be 
made the beginning. Each trip in reverse direction adds 
other unexpected delights. Many points of historic interest 



14 




Airplane view of central Berwick. 



will also reward the tourist. Advertisers have listed rec- 
ommended dining places. 

Trip 1. Northeastern tour: In 1807 the Susquehanna 
and Tioga Turnpike Company was organized to build a 
road north from Berwick to Tioga, continuing the turn- 
pike from Lehigh, constructed in 1787. This route went 
north over Lee and Huntington mountains to modern 
Jonestown then farther through part of Fishing Creek 
Township to Luzerne County's Huntington and Fair- 
mount townships and on northward to Elmira (earlier 
called Newton, New York). Take Leg. Rt. 19,040, then 
No. 894 over Huntington Mt. to Jonestown and Hunting- 
ton Creek. Huntington Mountain, Creek, and Town- 
ship carry the name of a distinguished Connecticut states- 
man and jurist, signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, Samuel Huntington, and thus recall the important 
influence exerted by Connecticut in the settlement of our 
region. 

(SCENIC TOURS Confined on page 19) 

Library Facilities in Columbia County include free public 
libraries in Berwick, Bloomsburg, and Orangeville. Col- 
umbia County is also unique in having one of 26 traveling 
libraries in the State. Its headquarters are at the Blooms- 
burg Public Library and it provides books and magazines 
for 24 stations: (Bendertown, Benton (3 stations) ; Briar 
Creek, Derrs, Espy (2 stations) ; Greenwood, Jerseytown, 
Light Street, Millville (2 stations) ; Numidia (2 stations) ; 
Orangeville Library, Pine Summit, Waller (2 stations) ; 
Zehners, Iola, Roaring Creek Valley, Central, Stillwater, 
and Fernville. 

Youth Services — The Columbia-Montour Council of 
Boy Scouts of America serves Columbia and Montour 
Counties generally with Luzerne county neighboring Ben- 
ton and Berwick, and Riverside, Northumberland Coun- 
ty, near Danville. Eight hundred adult leaders aid 2,350 
boys in 188 Cub, Scout, and Explorer units. Camp La- 
vigne in Sugarloaf Township provides the highest stand- 
ard of camping facilities. The central office at Bloomsburg 
serves the three districts of Green Briar, Berwick area, 
Fishing Creek, Bloomsburg Area, and Montour, Danville 
area. 

The Columbia County Council, Girl Scouts, Inc., serves 



our county with its central office in Bloomsburg. Five 
hundred adult leaders aid 1,400 girls in 67 active units. 
Camp Creasy near Bloomsburg is used for day camping, 
especially for the Brownies, and Camp Louise, on a splen- 
did 180 acre mountain site south of Jonestown, recently 
acquired, is in use with further development pending. 

In 4-H work, Head, Heart, Hand, and Health, boys 
and girls, 10-20, are trained in skills and citizenship. The 
Columbia County Program is one of the strongest in the 
state. Our 1,000 participants, more or less, frequently win 
distinction in district, state, and national contests. Leaders 
are well distributed over the County. 

The Berwick YMCA serves men as well as boys. A pro- 
gram of indoor and athletic games and other activities 
are made possible by gymnasium and swimming pool and 
other facilities. A comparable program is available to 
women. There is a men's dormitory. Fees are moderate. 
Approximately 500 enjoy the program. 

The Bloomsburg Youth Center, initiated by the Kiwan- 
is Club, provides a broad indoor recreational program for 
junior-senior high school youths with paid adult leader- 
ship, and serves about 500 boys and girls. 

Regular Enlistments — All the armed services — Army, 
Navy, Air Force, Marine, Coast Guard — accept volun- 
teers within the established quotas. Reserve enlistments in 
each of the services are also possible under similar ar- 
rangements. The Reserve enlistments require 6 months of 
full time basic training followed by a stated time in the 
Reserve, usually 3 years. Reserve personnel must give 2 
weeks of active duty each year plus 48 training sessions, 
approximately 100 hours, each year in the vicinity of the 
home region. Enlistments in the National Guard are un- 
der requirements similar to the active reserve in the armed 
services. The armed services maintain enlistment offices 
at Bloomsburg, and the National Guard at Berwick and 
Danville. The Berwick Armory includes the 1068th and 
1069th Transportation Companies and the Armory at 
Danville, the Howitzer 104th Armored Cavalry. Women 
may enlist in the Auxiliary units of each service for peri- 
ods of two, three, or four years. 

The Selective Service System of the United States is 
represented in the County by the local Board No. 50, 
made up of five members appointed by the President of 



15 




Mountain view. 

the United States. The office is headed by the Clerk chos- 
en by the State Director of the Selective Service under 
Federal Civil Service regulations. Male youths within five 
days after their eighteenth birthday must register in the 
Clerk's office in the Court House, or at other designated 
places, currently Berwick High School; John May's resi- 
dence, Centralia; and Catawissa High School. Quotas 
assigned to Columbia County are filled according to date 
of birth, the oldest first, from eligible lists. The Board 
determines eligibility according to established rules. The 
Clerk carries out the decisions. The office registers about 
400 annually. 

United Funds — The Berwick United Fund area includes 
Columbia County west as far as Ft. Jenkins Road, Mifflin 
Township, Nescopeck, Nescopeck rural routes, Wapwal- 
lopen, and most of Salem Township, Luzerne County. 
The Columbia County United Fund includes the rest of 
Columbia County excepting, also, Conyngham-Centralia 
districts. 

General Hospitals are located at both Berwick and 
Bloomsburg. Each serve their respective municipalities as 
well as neighboring communities. At Danville is the Gei- 
singer Memorial Hospital. Besides serving as a general 
hospital for the Danville area, this institution provides for 
the entire region the more specialized surgical and medi- 
cal services to be found usually only in large metropolitan 
centers. All three hospitals are in the process of enlarge- 
ment. Berwick will add 54 to its present 92 beds and the 
Geisinger 100 to its present 307 beds, plus a thirteen room 
operating suite and additional facilities. There will be a 
substantial but as yet undetermined addition to the 99 
beds at Bloomsburg. 

Fire Protection is provided for the County by 28 volun- 
teer chartered fire companies. All may, and most do, re- 
ceive aid from their political districts respectively: hous- 
ing, equipment, and supplies. Besides fire personnel, each 
company has a unit of fire police for the purpose of pro- 
tecting property and directing traffic, sworn in for these 
purposes by proper authorities. Fire police are subject, in 
addition, to fire fighting on call of the chief. The com- 
panies, including the fire police, have a military type 
organization with a chain of command under the fire 
chief. The fire chief is elected by members of the fire de- 
partment. By custom, all districts and companies, includ- 
ing those outside the county, will aid in emergencies be- 
yond the capacity of an individual company or district. 
Calls for help go through the local chief for approval. The 



Civil Defense organizes stand-by alerts among neighbor- 
ing districts or companies in such situations. 

Columbia County's fire protection rests in these 28 vol- 
unteer fire companies: Beaver, Benton, Berwick (Defender. 
Eagles, Ranger, Reliance, West Branch), Bloomsburg 
(Friendship, Liberty, Rescue, Winona), Buckhorn, Cata- 
wissa, Centralia, Espy, Light Street, Lime Ridge, Locust 
Dale, Main Township, Mifflin Township, Millville, Mon- 
tour, North Mountain, Orangeville, Summerhill, Valley 
Chemical (Numidia), Wilbuiton: No. 1. Wilburton: No. 2. 

Next time your local fire company tries to raise money 
in order that it may better protect your life and property, 
at the risk of its members, be sure to help it generously. 

Ambulance — Organizations make such service available 
to all parts of the county. Two types of organizations are 
in effect. In Berwick and Bloomsburg members join the 
organization for a modest fee. The pooled resources make 
possible the purchase of ambulances and equipment. 
Emergency calls to members are covered on a fee per call 
basis. In the other type, of which Catawissa is an example, 
a sponsoring organization, the Lions Club in this case, 
raises funds and secures the equipment. Emergency calls 
are then on a fee per call basis for all. 

Ambulance organizations: Benton, Berwick, Blooms- 
burg, Catawissa, Millville. Conyngham and Centralia 
have facilities available in nearby Ashland and Mt. Car- 
mel. Your chamber of commerce, nearest hospital, or town 
or borough police department, will aid you with detailed 
information. 

Red Cross — Two Red Cross Chapters, Berwick and 
Bloomsburg, function for most of Columbia County. The 
National Red Cross, operating under Federal Charter, is 
a voluntary organization of wide popular support. It 
charters the local chapters. Conyngham and Centralia 
come under the Shamokin-Mt. Carmel chapter. Berwick 
covers neighboring parts of Luzerne County. 

In all natural disasters and emergencies, the Red Cross 
takes the initiative in organizing relief and aid. There is 
a high degree of cooperation with the Civil Defense. 

Personnel are trained in first aid, in home nursing, in 
life saving, and to give instruction in such activities. 

All chapters collect and process blood for the Blood 
Bank, which is located at a central place, for our region, 
at Wilkes-Barre. "Priority One" means 90% or more of 
the quota has been secured. In this priority the needs of 
military hospitals, veterans hospitals, and then civilian 
hospitals will be met. In lower priorities civilian hospitals' 
needs will be met to the extent possible, after which re- 
quests will be channelled through the local chapter for 
special donors. 

First aid and lost children facilities are provided at most 
gatherings. 

A primary responsibility of the chapters is to render 
service by counselling to persons in emergencies. 

The Junior Red Cross program enlists the aid of school 
children through modest contributions in building up 
funds for children in disaster situations, U.S. or foreign, 
school supplies and library books. The Junior Red Cross 
has a program for international student exchanges of 
scrap books, music albums, and art albums. 

College students aid blood donor recruitment. 



16 



The Columbia County Unit of Civil Defense is in the 

Eastern Area of Pennsylvania, part of a nationwide Civil 
Defense Organization. The Board of County Commission- 
ers, as authorized by act of the State Legislature with 
supporting Federal legislation, is responsible for Civil De- 
fense in each county. This Board appoints, subject to the 
Governor's approval, a County Director. He in turn ap- 
points a director for each political subdivision. Their 
functions include safeguarding lives and protecting prop- 
erty in all types of disasters, with special emphasis on 
perils of atomic attack. 

Services and resources provided : A county-wide radio 
communication system is operated from Berwick and 
Bloommsburg as centers. Two hundred trained men as 
auxiliary civil police are on call. RACES, an organiza- 
tion of licensed amateur radio operators, are alert to 
supply communication in case of breakdown of other 
channels. First aid training has been given to over 200 
persons with over 150 young women trained for home 
nursing. In general, Federal matching funds are joined 
with those of the State and County to cover certain ex- 
penses, especially equipment. The services are entirely 
voluntary. 

First Aid resources include : One complete first aid unit 
with all types of bandages, compresses, and sanitary cups ; 
all types of antiseptics and antibiotics regularly replaced 
to avoid potency decline; four 200-bed emergency hos- 
pital units, three in Bloomsburg, one in Berwick, equipped 
completely for prompt operation; medical and surgical 
equipment; antiseptics and antibiotics with potency main- 
tained by continuous replacement, and standby electric 
generators. "The doctor won't even need to bring his 
stethescope.") 

Municipal Directories, which are frequently revised, are 
available for the greater Berwick and greater Bloomsburg 
areas. Rural routes are included. Berwick, in addition, 
includes Salem Township and Nescopeck, while Catawis- 
sa is covered by the Bloomsburg volume. 

Chambers of Commerce — The greater Berwick area 
includes, in general, the Berwick industry and shopping 
area; the one for Bloomsburg, Catawissa and RD areas 
in addition to Bloomsburg; Orangeville. 

Columbia Countians Who Have Gained 
More Than Local Distinction 

Moses VanCampen, scout and frontier leader of rang- 
er forces guarding the Susquehanna frontiers during the 
Revolution. 

Charles Rollin Buckalew, State Senator, 1858- 
1861; United States Minister to Ecuador, 1861-1863; 
United States Senator, 1863-1869. 

William Hartman Woodin, 1868-1934. Prominent 
manufacturer at Berwick; Secretary of Treasury under 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Dr. George Edward Pfahler, 1874-1957. Recognized 
internationally as the pioneer and leader in radium ther- 
apy; named internationally as one of the world's five 
pioneers in radiology. 

17 



Dr. Frank Charles Laubach, 1884- . Missionary, 
educator, preacher. Missionary activities include the co- 
authorship of primers for illiterate adults in over 165 
languages, bringing literacy to millions by the plan of 
''each one teach one." 

Dr. John Edwin Bakeless, 1894- . Colonel, United 
Army, res., ret., University teacher, journalist, author, 
editor, in fields of literature, history, biography, econom- 
ics, public affairs. 

Some of Columbia County's Names: Indian Names - 
Briar Creek, stream, township, and borough. This form, 
or Green Briar, appears in earliest records suggesting it is 
a translation of the Indian name. Catawissa borough, at 
first Hughesburg, from settler who laid out town, super- 
seded by Indian name. The weight of evidence is that 
this name is derived from several Indian dialects always 
meaning "pure water." Stream and township also so 
named. Fishing Creek, stream and township, translation 
of Delaware Indian name, Namescesepong. Roaring- 
Creek, stream and township, mentioned in very early rec- 
ords, presumed to be translation of the Indian Popeme- 
tung. 

Espy, from Josiah Espy; Eyersgrove, from Jacob Eyer; 
Jerseytown, settlers from New Jersey; Orange township 
and Orangeville from settlers from Orange County, New 
York, and Orange, New Jersey (there is no Orange Coun- 
ty, N.J.) ; Rohrsburg, from Frederick Rohr, a Prussian 
veteran of the Napoleonic Wars. 

Famous Persons — Presidents Cleveland, Jackson, and 
Madison townships. Others: Benton borough and town- 
ship, Senator Thomas Hart Benton; Conyngham town- 
ship, from President Judge John Nesbit Conyngham; 
Huntington creek and mountain from Samuel Hunting- 
ton (see Scenic Tour 1, p. 15) ; Jamison City from Colonel 
township, from Governor Thomas Mifflin ; Franklin town- 
ship, from famous statesman, scientist, author and printer, 
Benjamin Franklin. 

Scenery — Greenwood, Mt. Pleasant townships and 
Stillwater borough. 

Reminiscent of Timber Resources — Hemlock town- 
ship and stream and Pine Summit, Pine Creek and Town- 
ship. 

River rounding bend of mouth of Fishing Creek. 







" i --/.-- :~--^sefrs> 



•^MR ■ 




River entering Catawissa Narrows at Rupert. 

Pennsylvania State Highway Commission — Columbia 
County is a part of Highway Engineering District No. 31, 
with headquarters at Montoursville. The headquarters in 
Bloomsburg is for maintenance and snow removal on the 
553 miles of state highways in our County. Minor con- 
struction on these roads, including bridges, is performed 
in the slack summer months. The work force of 120 labor- 
ers, headed by a local superintendent, is aided by a staff 
of three assistants and an office force of five. When a road 
is adopted by an act of legislature, it is given a number 
and comes under the jurisdiction of this department. 

Department of Forests and Waters, of Pennsylvania, 
Wyoming District, No. 20, embraces Columbia, Montour, 
and Northumberland Counties, along with the Western 
Section of Luzerne and the Muncy Valley section of Ly- 
coming. The District Office is in Bloomsburg and is head- 
ed by a District Forester. Services: Fire protection, 10 fire 
towers, those of Catawissa and Aristes in Columbia Coun- 
ty; administers state forest lands, none in Columbia; ad- 
ministers State Parks, none in Columbia but Ricketts Glen, 
Luzerne, and Dry Run and World's End, Sullivan, are 
nearby. The Waters Division is centered at Harrisburg. 

The Columbia County Child Welfare Services are head- 
ed by an Acting Director chosen by the County Commis- 
sioners on recommendations of the State Secretary of 
Welfare under Civil Service regulations. 

The Acting Director is assisted by two case workers ap- 
pointed tey the County Commissioners on recommenda- 
tions of the Acting Director. The Acting Director is as- 
sisted by an advisory board appointed by the County 
Commissioners after nomination by a nominating com- 
mittee of the Board. The services rendered: (1) Place- 
ment of children in foster homes. (2) Protective services 
to children in sub-standard home conditions. (3) Services 
to unmarried mothers. (4) Child adoption services. (5) 
Institutional placements for retarded, delinquent, and 
handicapped children. Board, medical, and dental care, 
and also clothes may be supplied. Financing is from the 
County Institution District with State reimbursement. 
The State pays salary of the Acting Director, and the 
Institution District pays the caseworker with 50% State 
reimbursement. 



18 



The Columbia County Board of Assistance is made up 
of seven unpaid laymen, appointed by the Governor under 
Pennsylvania law. It prepares estimates which are re- 
ported for approval to the State Secretary of Public Wel- 
fare. The Board appoints, under Civil Service regulations, 
a Director to administer the program. He dispenses relief 
following Board decisions and in compliance with Stat: 
law. Relief is dispensed from State funds matched in some 
cases with Federal funds in the following classes: 

1. Old Age Assistance to needy Pennsylvania residents 
over 65. 

2. Pensions to those with major or total blindness. 

3. Aid to dependent children lacking one or both par- 
ents from divorce, death, or other cause. 

4. Aid to those totally, permanently disabled. 

5. General assistance to needy unemployed employ- 
ables and their families. 

The County' main office is in Bloomsburg with appli- 
cation offices in Berwick and Centralia. 

The Bloomsburg Fair, officially the Columbia County 
Agricultural, Horticultural, and Mechanical Association, 
in its century and more of life, has come to be one of the 
greatest fairs in the State. 

During the annual Fair Week, beginning in the last 
days of September, a quarter of a million people are in 
attendance. Exhibits appropriate to the official name, as 
well as school and hobby interests, reach uniformly high 
standards. Races attract those of sporting interest and a 
wide spectrum of entertainment is always topped with 
outstanding talent at the evening shows. 

Roaring Creek Rapids and falls 





View in Fishing Creek Township. 

(SCENIC TOURS Continued from page 15) 
North from Jonestown via 19,069, or a variety of other 

interesting roads, including those in neighboring Luzerne 

County, to Red Rock, Luzerne County. 

Side trips may be made : to magnificent Ricketts Glen 

State Park; n. to Central and Jamison City; route 16, Elk 

Grove, Nordmont, LaPorte and to state park at World's 

End, Sullivan County. 



HOTEL MAGEE — Beautifully decorated rooms 
with television and air-conditioning. Children 
free. 



Continuing, s. tracing the valley of Fishing Creek; Ben- 
ton; thence to Stillwater, where stands a Theodore Burr 
covered bridge, Columbia County's memorial to covered 
bridges; Forks; Orangeville; Knob Mountain; Light 
Street, which is near site of Fort Wheeler, a frontier Rev- 
olutionary fort; across Turkey Hill, actually part of Mon- 
tour Ridge and location of extensive nineteenth century 
iron mining; past cliffs of red rocks, the Bloomsburg red 
shale ; into Bloomsburg, county seat with courthouse ; turn 
s. at fountain and Civil War Monument; down Market 
Street to river, left at this road past Bloomsburg Town 
Park, swimming pool, skating area; intersection with Rt. 
242 at river bridge and airport; n., with alternative (a) 
US Rt. 1 1 which takes you past the old limestone quarries, 
some still active, or (b) old Berwick road through villages 
reminiscent of old canal days, Espy; Almedia ; Lime Ridge, 
site of Revolutionary Fort Jenkins; Briar Creek; and 
Berwick. 



HOTEL BERWICK — So different in every way. . . 
Here you will find hospitality, charm and con- 
venience . . . inexpensively. You will be agree- 
ably surprised how homelike a hotel can be. 



Trip 2. North Central area: Alternative trips are (a) 
Bloomsburg — Main Street at Iron, turn n. on 42 then 
after crossing creek Leg. Rt. 19,029 to Greenwood Valley 
to Route 254, this route e. to Rohrsburg, or (b) Blooms- 
burg to Orangeville on 339, then follow signs to Rohrs- 
burg; n. to junction of Leg. Rt. 19,060; Waller; turn left, 
Leg. Rt. 19,061 down Little Fishing Creek Valley through 
(Continued on next page) 

19 



The Columbia County Work Unit of the U.S. Soil Con- 
servation Service is headed by a Work Unit Conserva- 
tionist appointed by the Pennsylvania State Conservation 
Service under Civil Service regulations. The office was 
established in 1950 and is located in the Court House. 
The office provides technical and engineering assistance 
for members of the Columbia County Soil Conservation 
District. This service: 1) supplies county soil surveys; 
2) assists district members of the Soil Conservation Dis- 
trict in developing long range conservation of land resour- 
ces appropriate to the soil characteristics along with fac- 
tors of slope and drainage; 3) assists farmer members in 
the establishment and carrying through of such plans. 

The Columbia County Conservation District has 750 
members out of the 1,510 farmers eligible. The members' 
farms combined make up 67,500 acres, or about 50% of 
the available acreage. National figures show that in every 
year since 1945 the gross income of conservation farmers 
has increased, whereas the income of conventional farmers 
reached a peak in 1951 and has decreased ever since. In 
1945 4% of the farmers in this county had basic conserva- 
tion plans; in 1954 the number had risen to 25%. These 
farmers in the 25% produced 45% of our gross agri- 
cultural output. 

Columbia County Agriculture Stabilization and Con- 
servation Office is set up under the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture and is located in Bloomsburg. It 
encourages programs for agricultural conservation by pro- 
moting good practices and administers the conservation 
reserve (soil bank) with the production adjustments as to 
wheat allotments on permitted acreages. 

Established farmers in the County compose the Conser- 
vation Committee, which in turn chooses, under Federal 
Civil Service rules, the Office Manager. He also reports 
to the Farmers' Field Man in the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Agricultural and Home Economics Extension Office. The 

Agricultural and Home Economics Extension Service 
maintains an office for the County in Bloomsburg with a 
staff of five, headed by the County Agricultural Agent 
and the Home Extension Economist. All are employees of 
the Pennsylvania State University. Office expenses are 
paid by the County Commissioners. The Fundamental 
function of the office is to bring the findings of research to 
the farms and home. Advice is made available on livestock 
feeding, farm and garden culture, home management, 
nutrition, and health. 



View from Montour Ridge, looking up Susquehanna River.